Meanwhile in 1734 Deacon Abdalla Zakhir of the Greek Catholic Maronite Monastery of Saint John Sabigh in the Lebanon managed to establish the first independent Arabic printing press. It has been suggested that this device was used by priests to perform useful work such as opening temple doors and moving statues to impress gullible worshippers https://coinbreakingnews.info/ but no physical evidence remains and these ideas were never developed and the aeolipile remained as a toy. Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria conceived the idea of a reaction turbine though he didn’t call it that. He called it an Aeolipile (Aeolus – Greek God of the Wind) (Pila Latin – Ball) or the Sphere of Aeolus.
1846 Belfast born James Thomson, elder brother of Lord Kelvin, designed the Vortex inward radial flow reaction turbine which he patented in 1850. Similar to the Francis turbine , water entered around the circumference of a vertical shaft runner and was directed through coupled, moveable , curved guide vanes on to curved runner blades to enable optimum performance with different flow rates. His first model turbine, produced in 1847, delivered 0.1 hp with an efficiency of 70%. 1744 Prolific French inventor Jacques de Vaucanson maker of robot devices and automatons playing musical instruments and imitating the movements of birds and animals, turned his attention to the problems of mechanisation of silk weaving. Building on the inventions of Bouchon and Falcon, he built a fully automated loom which used perforated cards to control the weaving of patterns in the cloth. Vaucanson also invented many machine tools and collected others which became the foundation of the 1794 Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers collection in Paris.
At the same time it needed wide spans across the river with high headroom to avoid impeding the river traffic below. Brunel’s solution was a brick built bridge with two very wide but at the same time very slender arches of 128 feet with a rise of only 24 feet . At the time it was the widest span for a brick arched bridge and today it still an essential link in the main line carrying high speed trains from London to the West Country.
By the time he was 14 he had a knowledge of at least five languages, and eventually his repertoire grew to 12. He practiced medicine until the work load clashed with his other interests, and among his many accomplishments he translated the inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone which was they key which enabled hieroglyphics to be deciphered. He did however use one of Watt’s other innovations, the double acting piston, in which a sliding valve coupled to the piston enabled the steam to be applied alternately to each surface of the piston providing a power stroke in both the forward and back motions of the piston. Wollaston also investigated the optical properties of quartz crystals and discovered that they rotate the plane of polarisation of a linearly polarised light beam travelling along the crystal optic axis.
Roll compensation was provided by electric motors which adjusted small aerodynamic trim tabs at the tips of the four fins. The exhaust gases emerge from the aperture in the combustion chamber at high pressure and temperature travelling faster than the speed of sound. As they enter the wider, expansion part of the nozzle, we should expect the exhaust temperature and pressure to be reduced by the Joule Thomson Effect which dictates that increasing the volume of a compressible fluid, reduces its temperature and pressure. On the other hand, expanding the flow of a non-compressible fluid, such as water, after passing through a constriction would reduce its speed.
It states that in a mixture of ideal gases the total pressure is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture. In other words, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. Besides its concentration, the partial pressure of the gas in a gas mixture has a major effect in determining its physical and chemical reaction rates.
He wrote about plane, solid and spherical geometry, perspective, conic sections, and number theory applying rigorous formal proofs and showed how these propositions fitted into a logical system. His axioms and proofs have been a useful set of tools for many subsequent generations of mathematicians, demonstrating how powerful and beneficial deductive reasoning can be. Another Greek philosopher Democritus of Abdera developed the idea that matter could be broken down into very small indivisible particles which he called atoms. Subsequently Aristotle dismissed Democritus’ atomic theory as worthless and Aristotle’s views tended to prevail. The magnetic properties of the naturally occurring lodestone were first mentioned in Greek texts.
The Schanschieff battery which used Zinc and Carbon electrodes and an electrolyte of Mercury sulphate. 1853 Farmer cell, similar to Grove’s cell with improved design of the porous pot. It used Zinc and Copper electrodes and the Copper electrode was coated with finely-divided Platinum intended to cause the evolved Hydrogen to form bubbles and detach themselves.
Transport by canals cut the costs for industry and provided economic justification for new ventures which previously may not have been viable. The development of the road and canal transport infrastructure dramatically reduced the costs of transporting heavy and bulky raw materials such as coal, iron ore and clay for the potteries as well as the distribution of finished goods enabling new resources to be tapped and new markets to be reached. This was accelerated by the advent of the railways whose higher speeds enabled the distribution of fresh foods over greater distances, boosting the agricultural and fishing industries. Towards the end of the eighteenth century and during the first half of the nineteenth century, Literary and Philosophical Societies were founded in many British towns and cities, particularly in the north. Known as the “Lit and Phils” they provided the opportunity to discuss intellectual issues of the day and to sponsor cultural activities. Amongst their aims were education and the advancement of science and technology but in the days when there were few forms of public entertainment and recreation, they coincidently provided the opportunity for socialising and networking and so attracted a large membership.
Strangely Pupin did not patent the idea at the time but he did receive a patent or “Electrical transmission by resonance circuits” in 1900. 1898 Oliver Lodge patented the principle of tuned circuits which he called “syntonic tuning” for generating and selecting particular radio frequencies. This is the basis of selecting a single desired radio station from all those which are transmitting by tuning the receiver to the transmitter. Not only was this more efficient, it was fundamental to the orderly use of the radio spectrum and the establishment of practical radio communications systems which did not interfere with eachother. 1897 Russian mathematics teacher, Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, built a wind tunnel in his apartment which he used to explore aerodynamics and the drag characteristics of different shapes.
Einstein was intrigued and translated Bose’s paper into German, and had it published in Zeitschrift für Physik under Bose’s name. Over the next few months Einstein clarified and expanded Bose’s work and used his theories to investigate and develop what became known as the Bose-Einstein statistics which defined the possible quantum energy states of photon clouds. He compared the possible energy states of a cloud of identical matter particles such as electrons and a similar, though theoretical, cloud of identical light particles and concluded that the two particle types would behave differently. This was one year before, but consistent with Pauli’s current notion that matter particles obeyed the exclusion principle, and consequently had fewer degrees of freedom than the photons which did not suffer from the same constraint and would therefor have different properties.
1269 Petrus Peregrinus de Marincourt, a French Crusader, used a compass to map the magnetic field of a lodestone. He discovered that a magnet had two magnetic poles, North and South and was the first to describe the phenomena of attraction and repulsion. Greek astronomer and mathematician Claudius Ptolemaeus, Ptolemy a Roman citizen of Alexandria, published the Almagest “The Great Book”. In it he summarised the all known information about astronomy and the mathematics which supported the theories. For over a thousand years it was the accepted explanation of the workings of the Universe. Unfortunately it was based on a geocentric model with uniform circular motions of the Sun and planets around the Earth.
The commutator reversed the polarity of the rotor electromagnets as they passed the alternate north and south poles of the stator to create unidirectional rotation. Current was passed through a wire that was suspended into a bath of Mercury in the centre of which was a vertical bar magnet. The current interacting with the magnetic field of the magnet caused the wire to rotate in a circular path around the magnetic pole of the magnet. This was the first time that electrical energy had been transformed into kinetic energy. In 1837 Davenport made the first practical motor but it did not achieve commercial success and for forty years after Faraday’s original invention the motor remained a laboratory curiosity with many weird and wonderful designs. 1794 American law graduate and inventor Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin (“gin” derived form “engine”) which automated the process of separating cottonseed from raw cotton fibres.
They are used for space applications and power to unmanned remote installations such as lighthouses. The usage profile of computer time by individual users is typically characterised by short bursts of activity during data entry or information processing, between which there are long periods while the computer vibrate mode icons icos is waiting for input or access to external storage or output devices. Time-sharing enabled the computer’s waiting time to be allocated to other users to ensure optimum use of computer time, giving multiple users simultaneous access to expensive computer facilities without increasing the machine’s capacity.
Tesla resigned in disgust and went to work for George Westinghouse promoter of AC distribution and Edison’s arch rival. Edison with some success, spent the rest of his life trying to undermine Tesla. The Michelson-Morley experiment ultimately led to the proposal by Albert Einstein in 1905 that the speed of light is a universal constant. Assuming the speed of light with respect to the stationary aether is c, light travelling perpendicular to the direction of the aether wind will also be c. However with an aether wind speed of v, we would expect the speed of light travelling in the same direction as the aether wind, but upstream against the wind, to be diminished from c to c-v while the speed of light travelling downstream with the wind would be augmented from c to c+v.
The water was added to the alcohol in order to reduce the temperature of the combustion gases and had a limited effect on the engine performance. To avoid the use of ramps, some V-1s were air launched from two-engined Heinkel He-lll bombers to achieve the necessary high launch speed. Two 30 Volt batteries supplied electrical power to various relays, sensors and actuators as well as the radio if it was installed. Internal Power On-board power was mainly supplied by means of compressed air stored at over 2000 psi in two large spherical tanks constructed with an internal shell of welded mild-steel sheet, tightly bound over with steel wire to contain the high pressure. Compressed air, supplied via pressure reduction valves, was used to spin the gyroscopes to operate the pneumatic servos driving the rudder and the elevators and for providing the pressure in the fuel tank to pump the fuel into the engine. They still needed a guidance system and this was subcontracted to the Askania company in Berlin where engineers Guido Wünch, Herman Pöschl and Kurt Wilde designed the necessary guidance and control system.
The following year at Ampère’s suggestion he added a commutator to reverse the direction of the current with each half revolution enabling unidirectional – direct current to be produced. Pixii’s magneto liberated electrical experimenters from their dependence on batteries. His inventions and theories were key developments in the Industrial Revolution, providing the foundations of the modern electrical industry, but Faraday never commercialised any of his ideas concentrating more on teaching. He was perhaps the greatest experimenter of his time and although he lacked mathematical skills, he more than made up for it with his profound intuition and understanding of the underlying scientific principles involved which he was able to convey to others. He used his public lectures to explain and popularise science, a tradition still carried on in his name by the IEE today.